A View into dilated Time
B. Leibundgut et. al., 1996, ApJL, 466, L21-L24 [16 authors]
The correctness of Einsteins Special Relativity Theorie with its time
dilation effects is widely accepted and proved with a number of experiments.
This article indicates, that since now it was overseen, that the radiated
light of far distant stars with relative velocities near to the speed of
light shows a time dilation effect on the frequency of its light. This
effect is superimposing with the Doppler Effect and adds a major part to
the observed redshift of the star light, because it acts in every moving
direction of the star, whereas the Doppler Effect only acts on the escape
velocity, which is the vertical velocity component of the vector of the
relative velocity. Due to the fact, that nearly all redshift of the observed
star light was misinterpreted as an increase of the vertical velocity,
the idea of an expanding universe came up. A redshift, caused by time dilation,
allows a model of the universe which is constant and infinite in space
and time. This universe is stable due to the fact, that gravitational forces
are counteracted by inertial forces. This condition can be fulfilled with
constantly growing relative velocities with increasing distances. No conditions
for the directions of the velocities are necessary.
The following considerations lead to a new explanation for the astronomically
observed redshift of very far distant space objects. This redshift of the
star light from all space directions is interpreted in a manner that it
would be mainly a frequency shift of the light which is caused by the Doppler
effect. The conclusion is, that all stars are moving away from us. This
assumption is the basis for the presently widely accepted theory for the
expansion of the universe, which is based on the assumption of a Big Bang
about 15 Billion years ago. Important for this is the Hubble-law, which
was set up by the american astronom Hubble, who found, that the velocity
between earth and apart moving stars is proportional to the distance.
Fast moving objects
The considerations begin with a simple calculation: The ratio between
the departing velocity of an observed object to its distance (Hubble-Constant)
is presently estimated to about 50 to 100 kilometers per second per Megaparsec.
The diameter of the galaxy is approximately 30,000 Parsec, which is about
100,000 light years. The objects observed at the edge of the universe are
about 12 Billion light years away. With the factor 0.3 Parsec per Light
year and the Hubble-constant 100 km/s per Megaparsec it follows for the
presently observed objects with longest distances an escape velocity relative
to earth of up to 300,000 km/s.
That is the speed of light! We know since Einsteins Special Relativity
Theory that for an object which moves relative to us with very high speed,
near the speed of light, the time runs slower then for us. The relationship
between time shift and velocity is a hyperbolic function, which means,
by approaching to the non-achievable limiting value of the speed of light
the time elongation in the moving object will continuously grow. If the
moved object would be a space ship and we could see the crew of the space
ship with a telescope, then we would see the movements of the crew in very
slow motion, because we would e. g. see a time span, which was experienced
by the crew as a second, within an observation hour.
Time dilation slows down the frequency of radiated
It is true, that we cann't observe the crew in the space ship; but
we can see the radiated light of the very fast moving stars in very far
distances. It is widely known, that the speed of light of a star remains
constant at 300,000 km/s, whereas it doesn't matter whether the star is
approaching with very high speed or it is departing in the opposite direction.
Nevertheless we can directly see the dilation of time at the moving object.
Due to the fact that we could observe the movements of the crew in the
moving object in slow motion, then all other processes at the moving object
are also in slow motion. This includes the frequency of oscillations of
the light, which we can receive from the moving object!
The redshift of the observed light of the stars with very long distances
is therefore apparently not only caused by the Doppler Effect, but primarily
it is the result of the time dilation which is described by the Special
Relativity Theory, for objects, which are moving relative to another object.
With very high speed, near to the speed of light, this can cause dramatic
time differences between both objects. If the presently observed objects
with largest distances in space have an escape velocity in the order of
magnitude of the speed of light, then it is obvious, that we really reached
the border of the observable universe with our recently available super-
telescopes. But this doesn't mean, that there are no objects beyond that
border. If their relative velocity to us is however even nearer to the
ultimate speed of light, then an even stronger time dilation must occur.
In the ultimate, theoretical case, objects with the speed of light would
radiate light with a wave length which goes against infinity. This light
would not be visible any more.
With this interpretation there are no indications left, that space
is expanding or that it is of finite size. There is, like in a mighty wheel
mechanism, only a continuous increase of relative velocities, with increasing
distance, i. e. small systems are revolving larger systems, which are revolving
even larger systems, etc.. The necessity of increased relative velocities
between neighbor systems can simply be explained with a hypothetical situation,
where large groups of stars or of galaxies with no relative velocities
between them, would move on parallel curves. In this case the gravitational
forces between the neighbors would not be counteracted by inertial forces.
These curves would approach each other and the objects would finally collide.
(From the observers point of view the difference between the observed
velocities might be very small, if both objects move near the speed of
light. For the calculation of the inertial forces between these objects
we have to consider the difference in relativistic momentum, predicted
by the Special Relativity Theory,
The effect of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, with micro
wave radiation in the low temperature region coming from all directions
of space, was discovered 1965. This effect is presently regarded as a residual
radiation from the Big Bang and it is therefore accepted as an evidence
for this theory. But it can also be interpreted with the above explanation.
Galaxies, which are moving beyond the visible universe, should have relative
velocities, as near to the speed of light, that their radiated light cannot
be seen anymore by us as visible light. Due to the time dilation we measure
the electromagnetic waves of this light in a frequency range far below
the visible light. By measuring objects with the long wave infrared light,
which is not visible with the eyes, we may frequently see these objects.
The above mentioned measurements of a diffusive background radiation, which
value corresponds to a temperature of 2.7 degrees Kelvin, are apparently
showing the last stage of the received light of galaxies in extremely long
distances. The reason, that with these microwaves single objects can not
be localized any more, is, that with increasing distance the resolution
of the telescope must grow, to get a sufficient focused picture with the
tiny points and a large number of objects. With increasing distances the
growing number of objects in the view angle can therefore not be separated
any more. With radio telescopes this is even more difficult, because the
telescope diameter must increase with the wave lengths of the observed
radio signals, to keep the resolution constant.
The attentive reader will not have missed the fact, that at the beginning
of this article the arguments were made with escape velocities, which are
basing on the assumption, that the Doppler-Effect is mainly responsible
for the observed increasing redshift of the light of far distant objects
in space. The calculation of the Hubble-Constant was based on this assumption.
But if the redshift is mainly caused by the time dilation on the moving
object, then of course relativistic considerations are required to compute
the relative velocities from the observed redshifts. This will lead to
altered velocity data.
Probably there will be no single clear solution, due to the fact, that
the Doppler Effect is superimposing with the relativistic effect. With
the assumption of an expanding universe it acts and with the assumption
of a static universe, the average effect of frequency shifts to lower and
higher light frequencies, caused by the Doppler Effect, goes against zero.
As a mean result, only the relativistic red shift, with increasing distance,
With the assumption of redshift by the Doppler Effect, the escape velocity
can be directly calculated with the measured frequency of the light. This
value is compared to the reference light of well known nearer objects,
like type 1a supernovae, which were recently studied (see http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/282/5397/2156a),
and the frequency shift is a measure for the assumed escape velocity. The
escape- or approaching velocity is one component of the vector of the relative
velocity. It is called the vertical velocity component. The other components
are the tangential velocity and the direction of the vector. The redshift
by time dilation is however resulting from the absolute value of the velocity
vector, relative to the observer. The component of the tangential velocity
of very far distant objects is however not directly measurable and consequently
unknown. With consideration of the time dilation the ratios between vertical-
and the tangential velocities are therefore unknown. Consequently it is
not possible to compute one of these two values directly. But there should
be a possibility with the data of investigations of the redshift of type
1a supernovae. By comparison of the time dilation of their light curves
it is possible to calculate the time dilation effect separately . Then
the remaining red shift by Doppler Effect can be computed, together with
the two velocity components.
Due to this fact, it also follows, that the presently assumed distances
of the objects are not correct. While the distances of near stars in our
galaxy can be measured directly with Parallactic Shift, the measurements
of long distances in space bases on the comparison of the weaker brightness
of far distant objects to apparently equal or very similar objects in our
galaxy, with known distances. A distant, fast moving object, whose radiated
light frequency can be seen by us, due to time dilation, only in 'slow
motion', will send its light particles, the 'photons', only with lower
frequency! Thus their brightness, which we can measure, will therefore
be clearly reduced, i. e. these objects are in reality nearer as it is
With the assumption of the mainly acting Doppler Effect, as well as
with taking the time dilation into account on the observed redshift in
both cases, the conclusion is drawn, that the relative velocities are increasing
with growing distance and they reach the order of magnitude of the speed
of light at the edge of the visible universe. But from redshift by time
dilation on the moving object follows no statement about the direction
of the movement. Thus follows no conclusion, that the moving objects must
depart from earth and there can be no conclusions drawn out of the observations
about size and age of the universe.
The above explanation puts new light to a lot of old and new questions.
Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers formulated the following question in the early
19. Century: Why is the sky not bright in the night? If there are an infinite
number of stars in infinity distance, then the sky should be filled with
surfaces of shining stars. - The answer with the interpretation of this
article is: Yes, the sky is filled, but with the time dilated light wave
lengths of stars beyond the range of the visible universe. The frequency
of their light is shifted down to microwave wave lengths. This observation
is known as 'Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation'. The observed brightness
drops down constantly with increasing wavelengths in a log/log plot (see
This plot includes the possibility of objects which have even longer distances
with relative velocities which are so near to the speed of light, that
their radiation is extremely weak with longer wave lengths.
Recent investigations of far distant type 1a supernovae have resurrect
the old concept of Einstein of a Cosmological Constant. The result of the
work of several research groups, equipped with newly erected super-telescopes,
was, that the expansion velocity of the universe is steadily increasing
even in very far distances. This finding contradicts the idea, that after
the Big Bang, gravitational forces should decelerate the expansion in the
outer region of the universe. The question is: What is the nature of this
magic Cosmological Constant? - With the arguments of this article, there
is no evidence left, that the universe really expands and that we know
its age and size. The basic assumption of this article is, that only the
relative velocities are increasing with distances in the universe, but
the main components of these velocities do not have to be vertical, relative
to us. This steady increase of relative velocities with increasing length
scales ensures, that the universe will not collapse in regions, where the
inertial forces could not counteract the gravitational forces.